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By convention, Wikipedia article titles are not capitalized except for the first letter and proper names -- write your request as This and such theorem instead of This And Such Theorem. Also, when adding a request, please include as much information as possible such as webpages, articles, or other reference material so editors can find and distinguish your request from an already-created article.
Please make a page on linearization of ordinary differential equations. However, in the engineeiring books or web resources no proof is offered for it. In the engineering dield many researchers will benefir from its proof.
De Gruyter, Berlin - New York, Requests for articles about mathematical logic are on a separate page , and should be added there. Prior to creating an article, any biographical details can be added to: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Add your request in the most appropriate place below.
Before adding a request please: Search for existing articles on the same subject. If an article exists, but not at the title you expected, you can create a redirect. Check spelling and capitalization. Be sure the subject meets Wikipedia's inclusion criteria. Requested articles in Econometrics. Structure and Representations of Jordan Algebras. American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications.
Journal of Algebraic Geometry. Elementary and analytic theory of algebraic numbers. Springer Monographs in Mathematics 3rd ed. Regional Conference Series in Mathematics. Chicago Lectures in Mathematics 2nd ed. University Of Chicago Press. The book of involutions. With a preface by J.
London Mathematical Society Monographs. Geometry of Lie groups. Mathematics and its Applications. Brauer groups, Hopf algebras and Galois theory. The arithmetics of quadratic Jordan algebras. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society. Polynomials with special regard to reducibility. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications. Multiple Dirichlet series, automorphic forms, and analytic number theory. Hopf algebras and their actions on rings. Springer Monographs in Mathematics Third Millennium ed.
Boolean algebras 2nd ed. Classgroups of group rings. Noncommutative rational series with applications. Elementary and analytic theory of numbers Second, substantially revised and extended ed. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Translations of Mathematical Monographs. Translated from the Russian by Smilka Zdravkovska. Lectures on Arakelov geometry. Europa postage stamps have been issued since to celebrate membership of the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations CEPT , and international events have also been commemorated.
The first commemorative, a set of three Daniel O'Connell stamps, appeared on 22 June Until the mids, with only three exceptions in , and for Douglas Hyde , Louis le Brocquy and Pope John Paul II respectively, it was policy to not depict living persons. This policy has been put aside and since there have been several such issues, mainly depicting athletes; for instance 30 stamps were issued showing living Irish sportsmen for the Millennium and several golfers are shown on three Ryder Cup stamps.
Some stamps were issued in the form of a miniature sheet comprising from one to sixteen stamps of a single, or multiple, design from one issue printed on the same sheet and sold in that format. The miniature sheets are most often produced in addition to the same designs issued as single stamps. The first miniature sheet of four stamp on stamp postage stamps was issued in to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first Irish postage stamp.
A set of four stamps showing Irish wildlife was issued in sheet form and also as single stamps in Since miniature sheets have been produced with increasing frequency, from at least one per year initially to several sheets more recently.
No specific airmail rate existed for the 1d and 3d stamps though their use was permitted on non-airmail correspondence; all others paid a contemporaneous rate when first produced. These were the only airmail stamps ever issued but many definitives and commemoratives have been produced in values that paid the postage rate for airmail service.
The stamps were designed by Richard J. These were printed in sheets of 60 stamps with an 'e' watermark. Surcharges imposed by the Irish post office on mail bearing insufficient pre-paid postage had the postage due collected by the use of these labels.
Since there have been six series printed, with the design remaining the same until , though the colour and watermarks have changed. Hence, identifying the issue of a label requires further information: For example, the 3d value was blue between and , and stone colour from until ; it changed from a watermarked to a non-watermark paper in The first four series use only Irish words. Typographed by the Government Printers in Dublin Castle on 'se' watermarked paper.
The sheets were printed in larger sheets of divided into three panes of 60 labels. The second issue had ten values: Other details are the same. A third issue was made up of seven labels and issued in decimal currency in the following values: In the fourth issue the 3p, 4p and 5p values were reissued in non-watermarked paper on 20 March A new design, printed by photogravure , and appeared on 20 June in ten values: The sheet format was two panes of divided by a gutter margin.
The sixth issue consisted of ten newly designed labels by Q Design and lithographically printed by ISSP on non-watermarked paper on 6 October No Euro currency postage dues have been produced. Stamp booklets were first put on sale on 21 August Booklet construction was a lightweight cardboard cover stitched on the left-hand side with panes of stamps usually four panes , advertising panes and interleaving bound in.
Until most booklets had half of the front cover devoted to advertising, and until booklets also had serial numbers on the front cover: Until , when the Dublin Millennium booklet containing commemorative stamps was issued, all booklets contained only definitive stamps. Many booklet stamps can be identified by one non-perforated edge, though a few are perforated on all edges.
The gutter was used for stitching during assembly, requiring rows 4—6 and 10—12 to be turned through degrees so those panes could be stitched on the left of the booklet.
The Irish overprinted stamps came, as supplied from the printers in London, with a watermark of the Royal Cypher of George V. Around , the use of watermarks was discontinued by the Irish stamp-issuing authority,  and current stamps issued by An Post do not use a watermarked paper.
Postal stationery have been produced in the form of registered envelopes, postal cards , envelopes, letter cards, newspaper wrappers , airletters and telegram forms with different designs of impressed stamp applied to show that postage had been pre-paid.
A few early issued items were embossed but generally the post-paid impressed stamps were typographed. The Revenue Stamping Branch, Dublin Castle , applied the impressed indicia until , when An Post employed the typographic printing method. At independence, a King George V 5-pence registered envelope and 1-shilling telegram form were printed in green for use in Ireland until domestic products became available.
Registered envelopes have appeared in many values and sizes. The printed but non-stamped registered envelopes were produced by private firms and stored by the Irish post office until needed, so envelopes from former periods, showing outdated fees in the text, often received an impressed stamp for the current postal rate, creating many subtypes for collectors. Other products have carried post-paid imprint, such as commemorative and special issue postcards, including a series of St.
Patrick's Day cards issued annually since Up to , airletters also known as aerogrammes were produced without any fee applied and were available free from post offices upon payment of the appropriate rate in force for the postage stamp purchased to mail the airletter. Most airletters with a pre-paid indicia have been sold at a small premium over the then-current aerogramme postal rate. Known as the stamping privilege , companies, associations and individuals were permitted to submit their own designed and pre-printed envelopes, cards, letter sheets, etc.
Window envelopes were popular for printed matter rate mail. The most prolific user was the Electricity Supply Board which used meter reading and appointment cards for over forty years. No stamped-to-order registered envelopes are known. Apparently An Post have withdrawn the stamping privilege without any public notice , because stamped-to-order postal stationery has seldom been seen since An Post took control of the Irish Post Office in , with only five users recorded by Jung.
Between and a few philatelically influenced items are known produced by six users. Commemorative and special issue stamps are usually available for one year from the date of issue. Until the mids the Irish stamp-issuing policy was very conservative, with only a few new ones each year; up to four or five commemoratives, usually of two values, plus the occasional updated, or new, definitives.
Some collectors try to acquire a basic collection of the more common stamps from onwards, though that can be difficult now due to the quantity issued. The overprints , which proved very popular during their early years, are a complex topic giving an advanced collector a great philatelic challenge. The Irish Post Office has never publicised an official stamp numbering system for the postage stamps they issued, so collectors use a stamp numbering system from one of the most popular stamp catalogues ,  such as Stanley Gibbons , Scott , MacDonnell Whyte, MDW last edition , Hibernian or Michel.
Collectors tend to use the catalogues produced in their own region and language, so in the United States, Scott is used most often as evidenced by the use of Scott numbers in American stamp auction catalogues. In contrast, SG numbers are used in England and Ireland because Stanley Gibbons a British publisher produces the catalogue of choice in those countries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article does not discuss country definitives for Northern Ireland. For those see Country definitives: Names of the Irish state. Definitive postage stamps of Ireland. Retrieved 22 September Office of the Attorney General of Ireland. Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 30 July Collect British Postmarks 3rd edition. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 22 March University of Notre Dame.
Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 29 January Archived from the original on 6 May Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on Retrieved 16 December An Post 25 Year Special Edition: Retrieved 23 April Five issues had low printing numbers from ,—, and the St.
Patrick 8d value only lists , copies. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 2 April