Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus

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It was published in the scientific journal Acta Eruditorum in In , Von Tschirnhaus worked out the theory of catacaustics and showed that they were rectifiable. This was the second case in which the envelope of a moving line was determined. One of the catacaustics of a parabola still is known as Tschirnhausen cubic.

In , Johann Bernoulli posed the problem of the brachystochrone to the readers of Acta Eruditorum. Tschirnhaus was one of only five mathematicians to submit a solution. Bernoulli published these contributions including Tschirnhaus' along with his own in the journal in May of the following year.

Von Tschirnhaus produced various types of lenses and mirrors, some of them are displayed in museums. He erected a large glass works in Saxony , where he constructed burning glasses of unusual perfection and carried on his experiments — His work Medicina mentis sive artis inveniendi praecepta generali combines methods of deduction with empiricism and shows him to be philosophically connected to the Enlightenment.

Tschirnhaus was for many years forgotten as a philosopher and the studies treating the subject often discuss Tschirnhaus' connection to other philosophers and scientists at the time. During his time at the University of Leiden he started correspondence with Spinoza and later also Leibniz. Tschirnhaus was one of the first to get a copy of Spinoza's masterpiece Ethics. After he returned home to Saxony , von Tschirnhaus initiated systematic experiments, using mixtures of various silicates and earths at different temperatures to develop porcelain , which at the time was available only as a costly import from China and Japan.

Also in , von Tschirnhaus became the supervisor of Johann Friedrich Böttger , a nineteen-year-old alchemist who claimed to be able to make gold. The use of kaolin from Schneeberg, Saxony and alabaster advanced the work, so that August II named him the director of the porcelain factory he intended to establish. The Elector ordered payment of 2, thalers to von Tschirnhaus, but the recipient requested postponement until the factory was producing. When Von Tschirnhaus died suddenly, on 11 October , the project came to a halt.

This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor. Böttger now was nominated to head the first European manufactory for porcelain.

Contemporary testimonies of knowledgeable people indicate that Tschirnhaus invented porcelain. In , for example, Samuel Stölzel of the porcelain factory of Meissen went to Vienna with the still-secret recipe and confirmed that it had been invented by Von Tschirnhaus and not by Böttger. In a time before the digital age, when employees were valued for flowing script? Now employees can go weeks without scribbling anything more than a number on a Post-it note. But that doesn't mean your scrawl doesn't matter anymore - writing analysis is an increasingly popular way to screen job applicants.

A swell in the popularity of handwriting analysis, or graphology, in overseas European recruitment could see the trend catch on with UK companies. But while recruitment-graphology is growing in Britain - used by more than 3, companies to date - employers are reluctant to admit they use the technique. Handwriting analysis is often viewed with scepticism in Britain and companies appear to be afraid that this sentiment will discredit the professionalism of their company.

But not all employers are so coy: London banking group Butterfields publicly states that it uses graphology for recruitment. As managing director Paul Turtle explains: However, it has been shown to add an extra dimension to the jigsaw, which has frequently been validated once an employee is in situ. The British Graphology Institute would certainly agree that the optimum use of graphology in recruitment is in conjunction with other methods.

Cynics may suggest that the reason companies are reticent about revealing their use of graphology is because they use it without an applicant's knowledge - although this would be strictly against the ethics of any professional graphologist. Where problems may arise, of course, is in employers conducting their own impromptu analysis of an applicant's handwriting, based on little besides their own prejudices. For those of us with less than perfect script, this may certainly raise concerns when applying for jobs that call for a letter "in own handwriting".

In fact, professional graphologists agree that bad handwriting is by no means a sign of sloppy work or a lazy attitude to employment - it can frequently mean a high degree of intelligence and enthusiasm. In any case, it seems that writing is getting better rather than worse.

From a graphologist's point of view, the legibility isn't necessarily an issue - but handwriting is impossible to fake, as opposed to CVs , which tend to be increasingly 'embroidered', shall we say. A person might be able to fool me for a few lines, but their true style will show pretty quickly - particularly if they're writing about something they're interested in.

All this probably sounds quite tempting to time-pressed recruiters, particularly if they've been burned in the past with an exaggerated CV , or simply a candidate who doesn't fit in with the team. But there is also a financial reason why graphology may be used. Compared with psychometric tests, and interviews, handwriting analysis is a great deal cheaper, and can be a cost-effective screening process to these more expensive methods.

As companies become ever more aware of the costs of recruiting, it looks likely they will be open to a number of new screening processes. And graphology certainly looks set to remain one of the ways in which job applicants are taken on, or written off.

Getting my own handwriting assessed was a revealing process, and not only because it was the first time I had written anything of length for about three years.