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During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in , [61] and in

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BBC Online contains a variety of content ranging from News, sport, music, science, technology and entertainment, amongst other things. The website has a British orientation, although the home page, news section and sports section each provide different content between UK and "International" visitors. These are easily accessible from the taskbar running across the top of all current BBC Online pages. However, other top level domains are also in existence: However, there are many more top level domains — some in March [27] however this number has decreased as top level domains now frequently link to a lower domain name — that link to websites for individual services or programmes.

One of the most used aspects of the BBC Online website are the sections relating to News content, Sports results and news and Weather forecasts. The site also contains analysis from correspondents and other features from the Magazine section of the website. The BBC Sport Online subsite offers, in a similar way to news, a wide variety of material including sports results, live feeds to on-air programming, sports related news and analysis from commentators and pundits.

This successful site has now been expanded to include mobile views and downloads onto computers and mobiles allowing viewing for up to 30 days after broadcast. It was launched in October and gives each programme an eight or eleven digit identifier which is used to provide a permanent URL. The BBC also operates numerous sub sites that focus on different topics and subjects to expand the knowledge of the reader.

Each of these sub sites feature new articles published on the topic and contain other collections relating to the topic. For example, the Food site contains recipes featured on various BBC cookery programmes, the History site has an interactive timeline of key events and individuals, the Nature site contains a database of creatures, and the Language site [34] teaches phrases and more in 40 languages.

Included in this range was the well received Your Paintings website that catalogued every painting in public ownership for view. Until , the BBC also hosted a health website with detailed information, checked by professionals, of medical conditions and symptoms.

However, the BBC withdrew the site as this service is available from other sources on the Internet which did not exist when the Health site launched, the most prominent of which is NHS Choices. In addition to these subsites, the BBC also runs sites dedicated to education and learning.

These include the Bitesize revision website for teenagers and a section with resources for teachers including Learning Zone Class Clips that provides video from educational programmes for use in the classroom. The BBC plans to merge this content into one easier to access site in the foreseeable future. The BBC runs a comprehensive children's website. Its message boards are especially popular with children who use them to communicate with each other about all of CBBC's output among other salient topics for kids like bullying, books, and personal problems.

In conjunction with the Children's subsite, the BBC also runs an online revision website using the Bitesize brand and also ran a message board for students. This latter service, now called "BBC Student Life" and previously called "Onion Street", was launched in and is aimed at young people between the ages of 11 and The site offers a pre-moderated forum discussion on school work, revision and other areas of learning.

The BBC previously ran a page to help young people sort out their life difficulties entitled "Your Life". There is integration between television output and website content with aspects of children's programming have follow-up information on their websites. Democracy Live is a subsite of the BBC that contains live streams and recorded programmes from deciding bodies that affect the UK.

The site also includes a search facility to find relevant debate, a tool to follow a particular member and see videos of their contributions and other videos of historic events from these institutions. UK users attempting to visit the site are told: No money from the licence fee was used to create this website.

It provided access to mentors both online and at free events and workshops across the UK. The website specifically catered for to year olds but the BBC Blast project also ran a variety of work experience schemes for young adults between the ages of 18 to Blast was running from until It included a forum where participants could upload videos, audio tracks and images and comment on each other's work.

The tour also featured very early performances and interviews by artists such as Rizzle Kicks and Ed Sheeran. Blast worked with a number of partners to put on events and give content a chance to be promoted at a higher level. This subsite had news, star interviews, trivia, and other content popular with fans of the cult TV shows they covered.

On 15 July , the BBC announced that the site was closing as of the end of the month, although the Doctor Who section would be unaffected as the series was an ongoing BBC concern. The announcement explained that this was "part of the restructuring of the BBC's online activities". It was promised that some of the content would be moved to new places on bbc.

The site also featured video clips, viewable in RealPlayer , and a small gallery of cast photographs or screenshots.

It was replaced by a smaller, less detailed guide in , which only focussed on BBC shows and is also now discontinued. The BBC's site was initially entirely free from advertising, this was due to the BBC's funding, derived primarily from compulsory television licence fees from UK viewers.

Prior to this there had been criticism from some, as web users outside the UK could use the services including the entire BBC radio services without having to pay for them.

A service, called BBC iPlayer , was launched in December , which allows users to download both radio and TV content for up to seven days after broadcast. The television version allows users to either stream programmes or to download them using peer-to-peer and DRM technology.

Initially streams were generally broadcast in the RealAudio and RealVideo formats controlled by RealNetworks and the BBC drew criticism with some for using those closed formats which, at the time, could only be played using RealPlayer. In response to such criticisms, the BBC negotiated a deal with RealNetworks a 'cut-down' version of RealPlayer which did not contain as much advertising and marketing.

Windows Media has also been adopted and since Autumn , a Windows Media stream of all national BBC radio stations has been available. More recently, the BBC has been experimenting with MP3 downloads and podcasting facilities for an increasing number of radio shows, with a high level of success [ citation needed ] ; a less publicised trial of Ogg Vorbis streams for certain programmes was less successful, and has now been discontinued. During major events, the BBC often features liveblogs which publish the most recent text and image posts from BBC correspondents; particularly significant political events may pair live blogs with live video streams or recorded video loops relevant to the event.

In February , BBC Online incorporated Douglas Adams ' previously independent h2g2 project into its group of web sites, and eventually replaced all its existing message boards, which used an archaic system called Howerd, with the DNA software derived from that project.

The site's now archived Collective magazine also used the DNA software along with numerous other sites created after the BBC's acquisition of h2g2. The website has extensive technical information available about its operation. The BBC also made some of the content on bbc. Also, through participation in the Creative Archive Licence group, bbc. In November , the BBC launched the Connected Studio initiative which resulted in the running of workshops for independent web designers to work with the BBC in conceiving new designs and ways for current BBC services to be improved.

BBC Online uses several third-party companies to log information from users, by means of cookies. The BBC lists the companies it uses in its privacy policy: In March , a vulnerability was exposed in the BBC's "Most Emailed" and "Most Read" news sections which could allow for the popularity of a news article to be exaggerated and thus highlight it to other website visitors. In early , the site was made the focus of a government review, launched by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, led by Philip Graf.

Sections of the UK Internet industry had argued that the BBC site offered things that were available in the commercial sector, creating unnecessary competition. The review was published in July and it was recommended that the BBC "prioritise news, current affairs, education and information which is of value to the citizen. They also announced, as Graf had recommended, a new approach towards external providers which will see bbc.

The implementation of the Graf report has seen the popular message boards in the BBC Sport section shut down, as the BBC tries to promote its brand, but these changes have proved unpopular as the interface has proven unusable and large numbers of content providers have abandoned the BBC site.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September to 7 June , during the Second World War , and it was left to BBC Radio broadcasters such as Reginald Foort to keep the nation's spirits up. Concerts were broadcast from the Corn Exchange; the Trinity Chapel in St Paul's Church, Bedford was the studio for the daily service from to , and, in the darkest days of the war in , the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul's to broadcast to the UK and all parts of the world on the National Day of Prayer.

BBC employees during the war included George Orwell who spent two years with the broadcaster. In , John Reith and the British government , specifically the Ministry of Information which had been set up for WWII, designed a censorship apparatus for the inevitability of war.

Nothing was to be added outside of the preordained news items. This material also passed through the BBC's censorship office, which surveilled and edited American coverage of British affairs.

In total, 99 German, 38 Austrian and 38 Italian composers were censored. The BBC argued that like the Italian or German languages, listeners would be irritated by the inclusion of enemy composers. There was a widely reported urban myth that, upon resumption of the BBC television service after the war, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh Competition to the BBC was introduced in , with the commercial and independently operated television network of ITV.

As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of , in which the BBC was praised for the quality and range of its output, and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming, [53] the decision was taken to award the BBC a second television channel, BBC2 , in , renaming the existing service BBC1.

BBC2 used the higher resolution line standard which had been standardised across Europe. Starting in , a series of pirate radio stations starting with Radio Caroline came on the air and forced the British government finally to regulate radio services to permit nationally based advertising-financed services. In response, the BBC reorganised and renamed their radio channels. The Home Service became Radio 4 offering news, and non-musical content such as quiz shows, readings, dramas and plays.

As well as the four national channels, a series of local BBC radio stations were established in , including Radio London. In , the BBC's teletext service, Ceefax , was introduced, created initially to provide subtitling, but developed into a news and information service.

In , BBC staff went on strike just before the Christmas of that year, thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one.

In the late s, the BBC began a process of divestment by spinning off and selling parts of its organisation. The archive was sold to Brian Deutsch and is now owned by Getty Images. The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. In recent decades, a number of additional channels and radio stations have been launched: Radio 5 was launched in , as a sports and educational station, but was replaced in , with Radio 5 Live , following the success of the Radio 4 service to cover the Gulf War.

The new station would be a news and sport station. The channel had an educational aim, which was modified later on in its life to offer documentaries. In , several television and radio channels were reorganised.

In addition to the television channels, new digital radio stations were created: The following few years resulted in repositioning of some of the channels to conform to a larger brand: During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in , [61] and in The Hutton Inquiry and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality.

This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General, Greg Dyke. On 20 October , the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced that the television licence fee would be frozen at its current level until the end of the current charter in Under the new royal charter instituted , the corporation must publish an annual report to Ofcom, outlining its plans and public service obligations for the next year.

In its —18 report, released July , the BBC announced plans to "re-invent" its output to better compete against commercial streaming services such as Netflix. These plans included increasing the diversity of its content on television and radio, a major increase in investments towards digital children's content, and plans to make larger investments in other nations of the United Kingdom besides England to "rise to the challenge of better reflecting and representing a changing UK" [79] [80].

The BBC is a statutory corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen from April by the BBC Board and regulated by Ofcom. Regulation of the BBC is now the responsibility of Ofcom. The Board consists of the following members. The Executive Committee is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the broadcaster. Consisting of senior managers of the BBC, the Committee meets once per month and is responsible for operational management and delivery of services within a framework set by the Board, and is chaired by the Director-General, currently Tony Hall.

The Director-General is chief executive and from editor-in-chief. The Corporation has the following in-house divisions covering the BBC's output and operations: From as early as the s until the s, MI5 , the British domestic intelligence service, engaged in vetting of applicants for BBC positions, a policy designed to keep out persons deemed subversive.

This relationship garnered wider public attention after an article by David Leigh and Paul Lashmar appeared in The Observer in August , revealing that MI5 had been vetting appointments, running operations out of Room in Broadcasting House. An association with one of these groups could result in a denial of a job application. In October , the BBC announced that it would stop the vetting process, except for a few people in top roles, as well as those in charge of Wartime Broadcasting Service emergency broadcasting in event of a nuclear war and staff in the BBC World Service.

Such a licence is required to legally receive broadcast television across the UK , the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. No licence is required to own a television used for other means, or for sound only radio sets though a separate licence for these was also required for non-TV households until The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law. A discount is available for households with only black-and-white television sets.

As a result of the UK Government's recent spending review, an agreement has been reached between the government and the corporation in which the current licence fee will remain frozen at the current level until the Royal Charter is renewed at the beginning of The revenue is collected privately by Capita, an outside agency, and is paid into the central government Consolidated Fund , a process defined in the Communications Act Additional revenues are paid by the Department for Work and Pensions to compensate for subsidised licences for eligible overyear-olds.

The licence fee is classified as a tax, [98] and its evasion is a criminal offence. Since , collection and enforcement of the licence fee has been the responsibility of the BBC in its role as TV Licensing Authority. The BBC carries out surveillance mostly using subcontractors on properties under the auspices of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act and may conduct searches of a property using a search warrant.

The licence fee has, however, attracted criticism. It has been argued that in an age of multi-stream, multi-channel availability, an obligation to pay a licence fee is no longer appropriate. The BBC's use of private sector company Capita Group to send letters to premises not paying the licence fee has been criticised, especially as there have been cases where such letters have been sent to premises which are up to date with their payments, or do not require a TV licence.

The BBC uses advertising campaigns to inform customers of the requirement to pay the licence fee. Past campaigns have been criticised by Conservative MP Boris Johnson and former MP Ann Widdecombe for having a threatening nature and language used to scare evaders into paying. The majority of the BBC's commercial output comes from its commercial arm BBC Worldwide who sell programmes abroad and exploit key brands for merchandise.

A significantly large portion of the BBC's income is spent on the corporation's Television and Radio services with each service having a different budget based upon their content. Renovation of Broadcasting House began in , and was completed in This facility has been host to a number of famous guests and programmes through the years, and its name and image is familiar with many British citizens. The major part of this plan involves the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the building and construction of an extension [] designed by Sir Richard MacCormac of MJP Architects.

This move will concentrate the BBC's London operations, allowing them to sell Television Centre , which is expected to be completed by As well as the two main sites in London Broadcasting House and White City , there are seven other important BBC production centres in the UK, mainly specialising in different productions.

Open since October , and containing 7 new studios, Roath Lock [] is notable as the home of productions such as Doctor Who and Casualty. BBC Scotland , based in Pacific Quay, Glasgow is a large producer of programmes for the network, including several quiz shows.

In England, the larger regions also produce some programming. The BBC also operates several news gathering centres in various locations around the world, which provide news coverage of that region to the national and international news operations. He also stated that supplier accountability had been strengthened following some high-profile technology failures which had taken place during the partnership with Siemens.

BBC One is a regionalised TV service which provides opt-outs throughout the day for local news and other local programming.

These variations are more pronounced in the BBC "Nations", i. Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales , where the presentation is mostly carried out locally on BBC One and Two, and where programme schedules can vary greatly from that of the network. BBC Two was also the first channel to be transmitted on lines in , then carry a small-scale regular colour service from BBC One would follow in November It is also the first multi-genre channel to come entirely from Scotland with almost all of its programmes made in Scotland.

The service was initially only available via satellite but since June has been available to viewers in Scotland on Freeview and cable television.

It launched on 9 June , following a month trial of the broadcasts. It became a proper channel in , and screened HD programmes as simulcasts of the main network, or as repeats. In these countries digital and cable operators carry a range of BBC channels.

This online streaming ability came about following experiments with live streaming, involving streaming certain channels in the UK. In December , the BBC completed a digitisation exercise, scanning the listings of all BBC programmes from an entire run of about 4, copies of the Radio Times magazine from the first, , issue to later listings already being held electronically , the "BBC Genome project", with a view to creating an online database of its programme output.

The BBC has ten radio stations serving the whole of the UK, a further six stations in the "national regions" Wales , Scotland , and Northern Ireland , and 40 other local stations serving defined areas of England.

These are BBC Radio 1 , offering new music and popular styles and being notable for its chart show; BBC Radio 2 , playing Adult contemporary , country and soul music amongst many other genres; BBC Radio 3 , presenting classical and jazz music together with some spoken-word programming of a cultural nature in the evenings; BBC Radio 4 , focusing on current affairs, factual and other speech-based programming, including drama and comedy; and BBC Radio 5 Live , broadcasting hour news, sport and talk programmes.

These stations supplement and expand on the big five stations, and were launched in BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra sisters 5 Live and offers extra sport analysis, including broadcasting sports that previously were not covered. BBC Radio 6 Music offers alternative music genres and is notable as a platform for new artists. Following the change to Radio 4 Extra, the service has dropped a defined children's strand in favour of family-friendly drama and comedy.

In addition, new programmes to complement Radio 4 programmes were introduced such as Ambridge Extra , and Desert Island Discs revisited. The final station is the BBC Asian Network , providing music, talk and news to this section of the community.

This station evolved out of Local radio stations serving certain areas, and as such this station is available on Medium Wave frequency in some areas of the Midlands. BBC Radio Bristol , county or region e. BBC Radio Solent covering the central south coast. A further six stations broadcast in what the BBC terms "the national regions": Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. There is no BBC local radio station, however, in the Isle of Man, partly because the island has long been served by the popular independent commercial station, Manx Radio , which predates the existence of BBC Local Radio.

BBC services in the dependencies are financed from television licence fees which are set at the same level as those payable in the UK, although collected locally.

For a worldwide audience, the BBC World Service provides news, current affairs and information in 28 languages, including English, around the world and is available in over capital cities.

It is broadcast worldwide on shortwave radio, DAB and online and has an estimated weekly audience of million, and its websites have an audience of 38 million people per week. The service is funded by a Parliamentary Grant-in-Aid, administered by the Foreign Office ; however, following the Government's spending review in , this funding will cease, and it will be funded for the first time through the Licence fee.

Historically, the BBC was the only legal radio broadcaster based in the UK mainland until , when University Radio York URY , then under the name Radio York , was launched as the first, and now oldest, legal independent radio station in the country.

However, the BBC did not enjoy a complete monopoly before this as several Continental stations, such as Radio Luxembourg , had broadcast programmes in English to Britain since the s and the Isle of Man-based Manx Radio began in Today, despite the advent of commercial radio , BBC radio stations remain among the most listened to in the country, with Radio 2 having the largest audience share up to BBC programming is also available to other services and in other countries.

Since , the BBC has provided radio programming to the British Forces Broadcasting Service , which broadcasts in countries where British troops are stationed.

In addition to this, the BBC has been developing new ways to access BBC News, as a result has launched the service on BBC Mobile, making it accessible to mobile phones and PDAs, as well as developing alerts by e-mail, digital television, and on computers through a desktop alert.

Ratings figures suggest that during major incidents such as the 7 July London bombings or royal events, the UK audience overwhelmingly turns to the BBC's coverage as opposed to its commercial rivals. At peak times during the day there were 40, page requests per second for the BBC News website. The BBC's online presence includes a comprehensive news website and archive.

The website is funded by the Licence fee, but uses GeoIP technology, allowing advertisements to be carried on the site when viewed outside of the UK. The centre of the website is the Homepage, which features a modular layout. Users can choose which modules, and which information, is displayed on their homepage, allowing the user to customise it.

This system was first launched in December , becoming permanent in February , and has undergone a few aesthetical changes since then. As part of the site, every programme on BBC Television or Radio is given its own page, with bigger programmes getting their own micro-site, and as a result it is often common for viewers and listeners to be told website addresses URLs for the programme website.

Also, through participation in the Creative Archive Licence group, bbc. BBC Jam was a free online service, delivered through broadband and narrowband connections, providing high-quality interactive resources designed to stimulate learning at home and at school. Initial content was made available in January ; however, BBC Jam was suspended on 20 March due to allegations made to the European Commission that it was damaging the interests of the commercial sector of the industry.

In recent years, some major on-line companies and politicians have complained that BBC Online receives too much funding from the television licence, meaning that other websites are unable to compete with the vast amount of advertising-free on-line content available on BBC Online. BBC Online will now attempt to fill in gaps in the market, and will guide users to other websites for currently existing market provision.

For example, instead of providing local events information and timetables, users will be guided to outside websites already providing that information. Part of this plan included the BBC closing some of its websites, and rediverting money to redevelop other parts.

Unlike Ceefax , the service's analogue counterpart, BBC Red Button is able to display full-colour graphics, photographs, and video, as well as programmes and can be accessed from any BBC channel.

The service carries News, Weather and Sport 24 hours a day, but also provides extra features related to programmes specific at that time. Examples include viewers to play along at home to gameshows, to give, voice and vote on opinions to issues, as used alongside programmes such as Question Time.

At some points in the year, when multiple sporting events occur, some coverage of less mainstream sports or games are frequently placed on the Red Button for viewers to watch. Frequently, other features are added unrelated to programmes being broadcast at that time, such as the broadcast of the Doctor Who animated episode Dreamland in November It also buys a selected number of broadcasts from the Ulster Orchestra in Belfast.

The BBC is also responsible for the United Kingdom coverage of the Eurovision Song Contest , a show with which the broadcaster has been associated for over 60 years.

The BBC operates other ventures in addition to their broadcasting arm. In addition to broadcasting output on television and radio, some programmes are also displayed on the BBC Big Screens located in several central-city locations. The BBC also developed several computers throughout the s, most notably the BBC Micro , which ran alongside the corporation's educational aims and programming.

It showed informational pages such as News, Sport and the Weather. Oracle closed on New Year's Eve, During its lifetime it attracted millions of viewers, right up to , prior to the digital switchover in the United Kingdom. It ceased transmission at In , the BBC, in partnership with fellow UK Broadcasters ITV and Channel 4 who later withdrew from the project , set up 'project kangaroo' to develop an international online streaming service to rival services such as Netflix and Hulu.

However, the service eventually launched as BritBox in March The online platform shows a catalogue of classic BBC and ITV shows, as well as making a number of programmes available shortly after their UK broadcast. As of [update] , BritBox is available in the United States with the potential availability for new markets in the future. BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the BBC, responsible for the commercial exploitation of BBC programmes and other properties, including a number of television stations throughout the world.

It was formed following the restructuring of its predecessor, BBC Enterprises, in The company owns and administers a number of commercial stations around the world operating in a number of territories and on a number of different platforms. The channel itself is the oldest surviving entity of its kind, and has 50 foreign news bureaus and correspondents in nearly all countries in the world. These channels contain BBC archive programming to be rebroadcast on their respective channels: Alibi , crime dramas; Drama , drama, launched in ; Dave slogan: In addition to these channels, many BBC programmes are sold via BBC Worldwide to foreign television stations with comedy, documentaries and historical drama productions being the most popular.

In addition to programming, BBC Worldwide produces material to accompany programmes. Soundtrack albums, talking books and sections of radio broadcasts are also sold under the brand BBC Records , with DVDs also being sold and licensed in large quantities to consumers both in the UK and abroad under the 2 Entertain brand. Archive programming and classical music recordings are sold under the brand BBC Legends. Until the development, popularisation, and domination of television, radio was the broadcast medium upon which people in the United Kingdom relied.

It "reached into every home in the land, and simultaneously united the nation, an important factor during the Second World War".

It suspended its television service during the Second World War and until , but remained the only television broadcaster in the UK until , when Independent Television ITV began operating. Nevertheless, "throughout the s radio still remained the dominant source of broadcast comedy". Despite the advent of commercial television and radio, the BBC has remained one of the main elements in British popular culture through its obligation to produce TV and radio programmes for mass audiences.

Competition from Independent Television , Channel 4 , Sky , and other broadcast-television stations has lessened the BBC's influence, but its public broadcasting remains a major influence on British popular culture. It was then borrowed, shortened and popularised by radio DJ Kenny Everett. To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the BBC the song " Auntie " was released in The BBC has faced various accusations regarding many topics: It also has been involved in numerous controversies because of its coverage of specific news stories and programming.

The BBC has long faced accusations of liberal and left-wing bias. It has a liberal bias, not so much a party-political bias. It is better expressed as a cultural liberal bias. Conversely, writing for The Guardian , the left-wing columnist Owen Jones stated "the truth is the BBC is stacked full of rightwingers," [] and he cited as an example of bias its employment of "ultra- Thatcherite " Andrew Neil as a politics presenter.

A BBC World Service newsreader who presented a daily show produced for Kyrgyzstan was claimed to have participated in an opposition movement with the goal of overthrowing the government led by president Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

BBC's first three-box logo used from until [ citation needed ]. BBC's second three-box logo used from until [ citation needed ]. BBC's third three-box logo used from until [ citation needed ]. BBC's fourth three-box logo used from until []. BBC's fifth and current three-box logo used since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Broadcasting Corporation. For other uses, see BBC disambiguation. Broadcasting Radio Web portals.

Timeline of the BBC. Television licence and Television licensing in the United Kingdom. List of BBC properties. Logo of the BBC. Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original on 7 November Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 31 October Harris, Phil; Fleisher, Craig S.

Lobbying for a new BBC Charter". The handbook of public affairs. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 12 February Legislation and policy ". Archived from the original on 29 January Archived from the original on 7 September Public Institution and Private World. Retrieved 11 February The BBC and national identity in Britain, New York, New York: The Review of English Studies.