The first company to offer accident insurance was the Railway Passengers Assurance Company, by the late 19th century, governments began to initiate national insurance programs against sickness and old age.
Germany — Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of , square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.
After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig.
Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.
During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in , Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in , the country was reunified.
In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods.
Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection.
Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.
The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three , year-old wooden javelins were unearthed. Merchant — A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people to earn a profit. A merchant historically was anyone involved in business as long as industry, commerce, the status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies.
There are two types of merchant, A wholesale merchant is a wholesaler who operates in the chain between produce and retail merchant, typically dealing in large quantities of goods, some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer, sells merchandise to end-users or consumers, a shop-keeper is a retail merchant. Merchants have existed as long as business, industry, trade, a merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies.
Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phonecia and these markets typically occupied a place in the towns centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers and these artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum, the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection.
Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal, the Phoenicians plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by 9th century BCE. The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the Mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day Crete through to Tangiers and onto Sardinia.
The Phoenicians not only traded in goods, but were also instrumental in transporting the trappings of culture. The Phoenicians extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence, in around BCE, the Phoenicians developed a phonetic alphabet which was much easier to learn that the pictographic scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Phoenician traders and merchants were responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. Phoenician inscriptions have been found in sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos.
The Romans defined merchants or traders in a narrow sense. Merchants were those who bought and sold goods while landowners who sold their own produce were not considered to be merchants, being a landowner was a respectable occupation.
On the other hand, the trade of merchant was not considered respectable, although they may have lacked high social standing, merchants in ancient Rome often made handsome profits. Umbricius Scauras, for example, was a manufacturer and trader of fish sauce in Pompeii and his villa, situated in one of the wealthier districts of Pompeii, was very large and ornately decorated in a show of substantial personal wealth.
It has an area of 16, square kilometres and 2. Thuringia has been known as the heart of Germany from the late 19th century. It is home to the Rennsteig, Germanys most well-known hiking trail, half of Germanys Winter Olympic gold medals have been won by Thuringian athletes.
Johann Sebastian Bach spent the first part of his life and important further stages of his career in Thuringia, goethe and Schiller lived in Weimar and both worked at the University of Jena, which today hosts Thuringias most important science centre. The name Thuringia or Thüringen derives from the Germanic tribe Thuringii, an older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri, but later research rejected the idea.
Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns, came to central Europe together with them, publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii around , during that period, the Thuringii were famous for their excellent horses.
The Thuringian Realm existed until after , the Landgraviate of Thuringia was the largest state in the region, after the Treaty of Leipzig, Thuringia had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins. Their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in , the Prussian territories around Erfurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen joined Thuringia in The coat of arms of Thuringia shows the lion of the Ludowingian Landgraves of 12th-century origin, the eight stars around it represent the eight former states which formed Thuringia.
The flag of Thuringia is a bicolor, derived from the white. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, symbols of Thuringia in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest, because a large amount of the territory is forested.
Most of the remaining Thuringia came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen, in Mühlhausen and elsewhere, the Anabaptists found many adherents. Thomas Müntzer, a leader of some groups of this sect, was active in this city. Some reordering of the Thuringian states occurred during the German Mediatisation from to , in , after World War I, these small states merged into one state, called Thuringia, only Saxe-Coburg voted to join Bavaria instead.
Weimar became the new capital of Thuringia, the coat of arms of this new state was simpler than those of its predecessors. Gotha — Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located 20 kilometres west of Erfurt and 25 km east of Eisenach with a population of 44, The city is the capital of the district of Gotha and was also a residence of the Ernestine Wettins from until the end of monarchy in Germany in The first duke, Ernest the Pious was famous for his wise rule, in the 18th century, the Almanach de Gotha was first published in the city.
The cartographer Justus Perthes and the encyclopedist Joseph Meyer made Gotha a leading centre of German publishing around , in the early 19th century, Gotha was a birthplace of the German insurance business.
The SPD was founded in Gotha in by merging two predecessors, in that period Gotha became an industrial centre, with companies such as the Gothaer Waggonfabrik, a producer of trams and later aeroplanes. Gotha lies in the part of the Thuringian Basin in a flat. Gotha has existed at least since the 8th century, when it was mentioned in a document signed by Charlemagne as Villa Gotaha in , the first settlement was probably located around todays Hersdorfplatz outside the north-eastern edge of the later city centre.
During the 11th century, the nearby Ludowingians received the village and established the city in the late 12th century, as Gotha became their second most important city after Eisenach.
One of the oldest pieces of evidence of trade in the city is the Gotha cache of coins with nearly Bracteates. The parish church of this first urban settlement was St. Marys Church at Schlossberg, the castle was first mentioned in The monastery was founded before and abandoned in , until , the bourse of Gotha was located in the centre of Hauptmarkt square inside the Renaissance building, which hosts the town hall today. The medieval town hall was located on the edge of Hauptmarkt. Water supply was a big problem, because Gotha is not located on a river, in , Landgrave Balthasar had the Leinakanal built.
This channel, over 25 kilometres long, brought water from the Thuringian Forest to the city. The main businesses of medieval Gotha were cloth-making and the woad trade, the Reformation was introduced in Gotha in and the castle was rebuilt as a larger fortress between and More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.
The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia.
Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until In , Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in , after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of , the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives.
By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of , the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation.
In Canada, Macleans magazine in October wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in , with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in , Prussia became part of the new German nation.
It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. In , the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in , a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mids.
Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism—Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad.
Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in , the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Following Stalins death in , a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. In the mids, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December , Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states.
The company originated in as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed International Business Machines in , IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business for 24 consecutive years.
IBM has continually shifted its business mix by exiting commoditizing markets and focusing on higher-value, also in , IBM announced that it would go fabless, continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries.
They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. By most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, in , IBMs tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U.
In , he stepped down after almost 40 years at the company helm, in , the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. A year later it moved its headquarters from New York City to Armonk. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called Dr. Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a Volkswagen.
This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time, the Porsche 64 was developed in using many components from the Beetle. However, not all work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer.
Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the stages of the war. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, during his month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsches son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He also had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his fathers release in August , the first models of what was to become the were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria.
The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry, many regard the as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of was taken over by the fathers Dr. In , Porsche constructed a plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie, the main road in front of Werk 1.
The was road certified in , Porsches company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free Peoples State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital.
The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, on 30 January , not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. The , however, had several stages, A, B, and C, while in production.
An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than kilometres long and kilometres wide, with an area of around , square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise.
Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively.
In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than kilometres long and kilometres wide, with an area of , square kilometres and a volume of 54, cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles.
A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine — Meuse watershed. Around million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres.
The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms.
These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to metres deep. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium.
The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, Cologne, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well.
The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums.
Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom, and the Photokina.
The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a year-old Roman boat was made in late From to Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne.
Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, maternus, who was elected as bishop in , was the first known bishop of Cologne.
The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in , parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in In Janitos is established well on the insurance market.
In - Change at the top of the Group. The company is located in Cologne, Germany. The Gothaer Lebensversicherung AG offers different kinds of services in these areas: As a German insurance it provides products, which focus on term life, funeral aspects, dread disease, etc. Their enterprise size totals around employees.
In the very same year the number of customers who have a supplementary insurance, had increased up to thousand customers. On behalf of n-tv , the Deutsches Institut für Service-Qualität analyzed 31 automobile insurances in total. As one of the top two products, according to the cost-benefit ratio, approved the Komfort-Tarif of the direct insurer Asstel.
In the end Asstel achieved the second rang in the overall results. For its customers it remains an insurance for target-group-specific finance businesses. Its head office is located in Heidelberg, Germany. Currently the Austrian establishment concentrates on the coverage of biometric risks.
Gothaer Asigurari Reasiguari S. Gothaer Towarzystwo Ubezpieczen S. Its head office is located in Warsaw, Poland. Previously Polskie Towarzystwo Ubezpieczen S. This agreement contains a general coverage on all risks, like theft and a basic guarantee sum based on civil liability insurance.
Gothaer insures wind power plants all over the world over and became a market leader in this insurance part. Capital Stage is operating with wind and solar assets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Private Company Information - Businessweek". Retrieved 20 May Die neue Macht des Kunden in German.
David; Venard, Bertrand Handbook of International Insurance: Between Global Dynamics and Local Contingencies. Der Hamburger Brand von in German. Das Feuer und seine Folgen". Geschichte der Versicherungswirtschaft in Deutschland in German. Kölnische Rundschau in German. Wiederaufbau und Aufstieg der Kölner Messe, in German. Identifikation, Bewertung und Steuerung industrieller Risiken in German. Traditionsname Gothaer soll Parion ersetzen". Pfefferminzia - Das Multimedium für Versicherungsprofis in German.