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Advantages of hamstring grafts include their high "load to failure" strength, the stiffness of the graft, and the low postoperative morbidity. Add to Basket Skip coverage. Have one to sell? There is some controversy as to how well a hamstring tendon regenerates after the harvesting.

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The semitendinosus is an accessory hamstring the primary hamstrings are left intact , and the gracilis is not a hamstring, but an accessory adductor the primary adductors are left intact as well. The tendon segments are folded and braided together to form a tendon of quadruple thickness for the graft. The braided segment is threaded through the heads of the tibia and femur , and its ends are fixed with screws on the opposite sides of the two bones.

Unlike the patellar ligament, the hamstring tendon's fixation to the bone can be affected by motion after surgery. Therefore, a brace is often used to immobilize the knee for one to two weeks.

Evidence suggests that the hamstring tendon graft does as well, or nearly as well, as the patellar ligament graft in the long term. The main surgical wound is over the upper proximal tibia, which prevents the typical pain experienced when kneeling after surgery. The wound is typically smaller than that of a patellar ligament graft, and so causes less post-operative pain. Another option first described in , a minimally invasive technique for harvesting from the back of the knee, is faster, produces a significantly smaller wound, avoids the complications of graft harvesting from the anterior incision, and decreases the risk of nerve injury.

There is some controversy as to how well a hamstring tendon regenerates after the harvesting. Most studies suggest that the tendon can be regenerated at least partially, though it will still be weaker than the original tendon.

Advantages of hamstring grafts include their high "load to failure" strength, the stiffness of the graft, and the low postoperative morbidity.

The natural ACL can withstand a load of up to 2, newtons. With a hamstring graft, this number doubles, decreasing the risk of re-injury. The stiffness of a hamstring graft—quadruple that of the natural ACL Bartlett, Clatworthy and Ngugen, —also reduces the risk of re-injury. The patellar tendon connects the patella kneecap to the tibia shin. The graft is normally taken from the injured knee, but in some circumstances, such as a second operation, the other knee may be used.

The middle third of the tendon is used, with bone fragments removed on each end. The graft is then threaded through holes drilled in the tibia and femur, and screwed into place. It is slightly larger than a hamstring graft. Some or all of these disadvantages may be attributable to post-operative patellar tendon shortening. The rehabilitation after the surgery is different for each knee. The beginning rehab for the ACL graft knee is focused on reducing swelling , gaining full range of motion , and stimulating the leg muscles.

The goal for the graft donor need is to immediately start high repetition strength training exercises. The patellar ligament, tibialis anterior tendon , or Achilles tendon may be recovered from a cadaver and used in ACL reconstruction. The Achilles tendon, because of its large size, must be shaved to fit within the joint cavity. Typically, age and lifestyle help determine the type of graft used for ACL reconstruction. No ideal graft site for ACL reconstruction exists. Surgeons have historically regarded patellar tendon grafts as the "gold standard" for knee stability.

Hamstring grafts historically had problems with fixation slippage and stretching out over time. Modern fixation methods avoid graft slippage and produce similarly stable outcomes with easier rehabilitation, less anterior knee pain and less joint stiffness. Although there is less experience with the use of tibialis anterior grafts, preliminary data has shown no difference in short-term subjective outcomes between tibialis anterior allografts and patellar tendon allografts.

The quadriceps tendon, while historically reserved for revision reconstructions, has enjoyed a renewed focus as a versatile and durable graft for primary reconstructions. Use of the quadriceps tendon usually does not result in the same degree of anterior knee pain postoperatively, and quadriceps tendon harvest produces a reliably thick, robust graft.

Autologous stem-cell transplantation using mesenchymal stem cells MSCs has been used to improve recovery time from ACL surgery, especially for athletes. MSCs are multipotent stem cells, meaning they can differentiate into multiple cell types. In the case of mesenchymal stem cells, these cell types include osteoblasts bone cells , adipocytes fat cells , and chondrocytes cartilage cells. Ligament tissue mainly consists of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix.

Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different cues in the cell environment, and express different cell surface markers, limiting the number of clinical treatments for accelerated repair of ACL tissue to MSCs and primary fibroblasts obtained from other ACL tissue.

Therefore, most modern stem cell injections use MSCs to promote faster repair of the ACL and allow people such as athletes to return to their previous form faster. In order for MSCs to differentiate into an ACL, they must be placed in a proper scaffold on which to grow, and must be in a bioreactor that maintains a normal physiological environment for the cells to reproduce and proliferate effectively.

Scaffolds that are used for ACL growth include collagen , silk, gelatin, polylactic acid , and glycosaminoglycans. The bioreactor must have similar properties to a knee joint so that when the ACL is inserted into the body, it is not rejected as foreign, which could cause infection.

Therefore, it has to have compatible pH levels , oxygen concentration levels, metabolite levels and temperature, in addition to being sterile. The smallest hot plate "Made in Germany" which makes this the ideal companion for every journey. Superior casing made of stainless steel and plastic in a handy size.

Automatic cooking system and overheating protection with non-slip rubber feet for a safe stand. Durable cast iron heating plate with integrated cord take-up. Small, compact, portable, these handy travel hot plates are easy to stow, therefore ready to use at any place in no time.

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Rebuild from Br 52 m. Prussian T 18 , Württemberg T Prussian T 13, Oldenburg T Branch line locomotive Glaskasten 'glass box'.

Branch line locomotive, including some DRG copies. E10 with altered drive transmission, reclassified to Class in Prussian EG to EG Multi-system locomotive for cross-border working.