Serge Gutwirth

China publiceert maandag als eerste groot land cijfers over de economische groei in het tweede kwartaal. Beleggers vragen zich af of de Amerikaanse importtaksen op Chinees staal en aluminium, die sinds 23 maart van kracht zijn, al een duidelijke impact hebben.

When can I find out more? Supervised de senaste 20 aren har binge sett the human race i alla aldrar och livsstilar med detta problem. Demnach wird eine Lücke, die durch die Entnahme von Waren aus dem Lager entsteht, unmittelbar wieder mit dem gleichen Artikel aufgefüllt. Laat ons de actie herleiden tot haar ware proporties:

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Novartis AG Pfizer Inc. Passende Wertpapiere zur Mylan Aktie. De rechtbank in Dendermonde veroordeelde de aardappelactivisten van Wetteren voor bendevorming. Vijf juristen-hoogleraren wijzen erop dat deze uitspraak een gevaarlijk precedent schiep: De vijf ondertekenaars zijn allen hoogleraar rechten Wat?

Er is een wetswijziging nodig om juridische ontsporingen, zoals rond de aardappelactivisten, te voorkomen. Een kwestie van wettelijke voorschriften.

Tal van heelkundige ingrepen kunnen op het eerste gezicht worden opgevat als inbreuken op de strafwet 'opzettelijke slagen en verwondingen'. Toch kunnen artsen voor het allergrootste deel van hun interventies niet worden vervolgd. De oorzaak van deze immuniteit is te vinden in de rechtsbronnen - wetgeving, rechtspraak en rechtsleer - waarin elementen zijn vervat die ertoe leiden dat artsen die 'slagen en verwondingen' toedienen of iemand 'doden', vrijuit gaan of met andere woorden 'immuun' blijven tegen het strafrecht en een veroordeling door de strafrechter of -rechtbank.

Een rechtsfiguur, een juridische constructie op basis van de interpretatie van de rechtsbronnen, die terzake voor de geneeskunde van het allergrootste belang is, is wat door de juristen 'het wettelijk voorschrift' genoemd wordt. In dit artikel wordt de plaats die de rechtsfiguur van - Key words: Disentangling Law from Ethics in Privacy Discourse. Numerous science, technology and engineering developments are perceived as raising privacy concerns. As such, privacy repeatedly finds itself addressed through the mixed lens of an 'ethical-legal' if not 'ethical-legal-social' perspective.

The aim of this contribution is to dispute the validity of this indistinctive approach, to stress its shortcomings, and to investigate the paths that help to disentwine ethics and law in accordance with their respective singularities and the distance between them. The paper's basic premise is that it is not possible to address the articulation between law and ethics from a neutral, un-aligned, un-attached perspective, and that, regardless of the perspective adopted to examine them, and irrespective of their many intersections, ethics and law are to remain uncoupled.

The contribution illustrates how contemporary discourse on privacy can be affected by the merging of the ethical and the legal with examples taken from support of security research in the European Union EU.

Examining the limits of this viewpoint, it puts forward that legal and ethical perspectives of privacy will always remain separated by a gap, and that it is by embracing such gap, instead of attempting to erase it, that the study of privacy should be apprehended. Continuously seeking and questioning the boundaries between law and ethics is, it is suggested, perhaps the most ethical approach to enter the subject.

New-emerging markets and mediascapes. Gutwirth Serge Bouleversement climatique: Revue Juridique de l'Environnement Over wetenschapsfraude als bliksemafleider. In deze bijdrage hebben we getracht een te enge blik op wetenschapsfraude als individueel wangedrag in vraag te stellen. Dat deden we door het spanningsveld uit te tekenen waarin de fraude wortel schiet: Dit spanningsveld dwingt de wetenschapper tot een constante reflexiviteit ten aanzien van zijn dagelijkse wetenschappelijke praktijk.

Wetenschapsfraude blijkt daarbij slechts een bliksemafleider, een fenomeen in de marge van een veel prangender vraagstuk. Daarenboven is de uitvergroting van individuele fraudes het vehikel van een beeld van wetenschap dat op zijn minst betwistbaar of vernauwend is: Eveneens erg problematisch is de loskoppeling van enerzijds het aan de kaak stellen van individueel wetenschappelijk wangedrag, en anderzijds de fundamentele omvorming van de wetenschappen tot een knowledge economy, die de vector is van heel andere stimuli dan de collectieve productie robuuste, betrouwbare en gerectificeerde kennis.

Veel meer dan met het niet-frauderen tegen de constraints van de wetenschappelijke praktijk, zijn de wetenschappers van vandaag bezig met de vraag hoe zij die constraints nog kunnen honoreren als het wetenschapsbeleid ermee tegenstrijdig blijkt. Multidisciplinary Insights and Contemporary Challenges. This volume brings together papers that offer conceptual analyses, highlight issues, propose solutions, and discuss practices regarding privacy and data protection. The first section of the book provides an overview of developments in data protection in different parts of the world.

The second section focuses on one of the most captivating innovations of the data protection package: The third section presents studies on a recurring, and still important and much disputed, theme of the Computers, Privacy and Data Protection CPDP conferences: This part is illustrated by examples from the domain of law enforcement and smart surveillance. The book concludes with five chapters that advance our understanding of the changing nature of privacy concerns and data protection.

This volume brings together 16 chapters offering conceptual analyses, highlighting issues, proposing solutions, and discussing practices regarding privacy and data protection. International Journal of Law and Information Technology The ratification process of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement ACTA in the European Union has raised many academic and non-academic questions on various aspects of the enforcement of intellectual property rights IPR , one of them being the relation between copyright enforcement and the fundamental rights of alleged infringers.

In this article, we analyse this relation in the context of the existing European framework, with particular attention for the pertinent decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union CJEU. While the rejection of ACTA by the European Parliament seems to relieve the most imminent threats, the review of the IPR Enforcement directive and other Commission initiatives, including bilateral agreements, should keep the discussion alive.

Privacy; data protection; ACTA; copyright; online. Anthologie privacy is een smaakmaker, een lokvogel, een tipje van de sluier die de auteurs proberen op te lichten van de nieuwe website www. Het idee om een anthologie van het Belgische privacyrecht ter beschikking te stellen is gegroeid in de aanloop naar het voorstel voor een nieuw Europees gegevensbeschermingsrecht. Na het voorstel van de Europese Commissie van 25 januari is het nog duidelijker geworden dat kennis en ontsluiting van de basisdocumentatie belangrijk is.

In een eerste fase hebben we ons beperkt tot , tot het Unierecht werd omgezet in de Belgische wet- en regelgeving. In deze publicatie vindt de lezer de praktische informatie sitemap, auteurslijst, verantwoording, gebruikstips maar ook een overzicht van de groei en de opbouw van het Belgische privacyrecht en de toezichthouder. De professoren Paul De Hert en Serge Gutwirth geven in de hoofdtekst een eerste excursie in de nieuwste geschiedenis van dit recht.

Voor de uitgebreidere tekst met notenapparaat staat op de website. De auteurs kozen voor een webpublicatie om de artikelen te ontsluiten en niet voor een gedrukte selectie. Zelfs beperkt tot bleek het aantal artikelen en bijdragen te groot te zijn, zelfs voor een cd-rom als bijlage. De webtoepassing laat ook toe om wet- en regelgeving en jurisprudentie op te nemen, en geleidelijk aan de documentatie uit te breiden in tijd, ruimte en medium.

We willen leren uit uw ervaringen met deze website. Het belang van een evenwichtige privacypolitiek. Bijdrage over het evenwicht tussen het recht op privacy en het recht op veligheid in een Nederlands handboek terzake. Veiligheid en veiligheidszorg vormen kernthema's in de huidige moderne samenleving. De omvang en intensiteit van de veiligheid heeft een directe relatie met de kwaliteit van de samenleving.

De veiligheidszorg krijgt de afgelopen jaren intensief vorm door middel van uitgebreide programma's en activiteiten van vele organisaties. Voldoende reden om ook vanuit de wetenschap een gestructureerde bijdrage te leveren aan het voortdurende debat over veiligheid en veiligheidszorg.

Een historisch overzicht van documenten over de bescherming van privacy en persoonsgegevens van bij het begin van de jaren zeventig tot Professoren Paul De Hert en Serge Gutwirth van de VUB schreven samen met Willem Debeuckelaere, voorzitter van de Privacycommissie, een uitgebreide tekst waarin alle referenties zijn opgenomen naar de documenten die op deze website verzameld zijn. The overhaul of the EU data protection regime is a welcome development for various reasons: The Framework Decision is a practically unenforceable instrument, and even harmful in its weakness in protecting personal data.

The Commission's proposed Regulation and Directive intended to replace it to improve the data protection afforded to individuals in their respective fields of application across the EU today. This paper considers some of the principles, some new, some old, that underpin the proposed new data protection framework, which was released on 25 January We offer an analysis of the key principles of lawfulness of the processing, access to justice, transparency and accountability principles intended to be all-encompassing, abstract and omnipresent.

Some of the above principles may appear to be new, but such is not necessarily the case. For instance, the principle of lawfulness is central in the current Directive, but it reappears in an amended form in the proposed EU data protection framework. On the other hand, the principle of accountability is an addition to the list that will need to prove its value in practice.

Regardless of the outcome of the EU data protection framework amendment process and the ultimate wording of the instruments that compose it, the application and visibility of these principles ought to remain unaffected.

Friedewald Michael, Gutwirth Serge Introduction to special section: Science and Public Policy In this special section in this issue of Science and Public Policy, authors reflect on the fundamental challenges posed by the rapid progress in science and technology to human rights, in particular to the right to privacy. They aim to find new answers to the question: How can a global governance of science and technology address these challenges?

Earlier versions of these papers were presented at the International Conference on Privacy and Emerging Sciences and Technologies, held on November in Berlin, and at the First European Conference on Technology Assessment, which took place in Prague on March Analysis of the impact of convergent and pervasive ICT on privacy and data protection and needs and options for development of the legal framework, Prituis Deliverable D3: Draft final study report.

The overall objective of this study is to provide information helping to develop and assess policy options at EU level addressing existing and new challenges to effective data protection, privacy and trust resulting from the emergence of the ubiquitous Information Society.

Moreover, it aims to provide input for the development of a set of EU level measures responding to the challenges, based on an assessment of available instruments to achieve the maximum potential benefits.

Our report identifies various specific challenges to privacy and trust in the ubiquitous Information Society. The challenges are grouped according to technological, socio-economic and administrative developments as well as legal issues. The report is organised in two main parts: The first Chapters deals with the identification and analysis of challenges and the second with possible policy responses and assessments thereof.

An introduction to the subjects of privacy and trust and the context of this study are given in Chapter 1. With regard to technological developments, Chapter 2 reviews challenges emerging from information collection technologies, a category in which we include positioning and tracking, identification, and activity and ability recognition technologies.

We also review communication and dissemination technologies, new architectures and protocols, and information storage and processing developments. In the context of socio-economic developments, Chapter 3 examines privacy-challenging business functions, new businesses and business models, social networking, and the convergence of the real and virtual worlds, as illustrated by a case study of Second Life.

The report then goes on to examine the mergers and acquisitions made by the dominant Internet companies, especially in the context of their advertising acquisitions, which have enabled them to better target consumers. The chapter also examines data breaches and losses, through cybercrime and negligence, which have been factors in diminishing public trust.

Chapter 4 examines challenges from administrative developments and there we examine e-government, e-democracy, biometric identity cards and passports, smart transportation systems, law enforcement and security as well as international transfers of personal data. Next, in Chapter 5, we examine legal challenges, with reference to existing legal definitions of personal data, data controller and data processor as well as with reference to traffic and location data. We consider the need to adjust data protection principles and other issues, including lawful processing, security obligations and notification of breaches, automated decisions and profiling, Internet service providers and disclosure of personal data, consent, confidentiality of communications and the legal challenges arising from convergence and technological developments.

In the second part of our report, Chapter 7 describes various possible responses to the challenges identified in Chapters 2 -5 and summarised in Chapter 6 , namely technical responses, administrative responses, awareness-raising and education measures, self-regulation and legal responses.

Chapter 8 describes EU instruments by means of which responses can be implemented and Chapter 9 assesses the response measures as well as the responses to the challenges as summarised in Chapter 6. The report's final chapter Chapter 10 sets out our 10 principal recommendations to the Commission. Privacy; data protection; ePrivacy; ubiquitous computing. This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional ''trade-off'' paradigm.

The issue is this: Our political masters justify their intrusions upon our privacy with proclamations of the need to protect the citizenry against further terrorist attacks like those that have already marred the early twenty-first century. The surveillance industry has been quick to exploit this new market opportunity, supported as it is by inexorable technological ''progress'' in devising new ways to infringe upon our privacy.

The trade-off paradigm has troubled academics. While the European Commission has been devoting billions of euro to security research, it too is troubled by the trade-off paradigm. It is funding the PRISMS project, which will undertake a major public opinion survey on privacy and security and which aims to formulate a decision support system that should offer an alternative to the traditional trade-off model.

Gellert Raphael, Gutwirth Serge The legal construction of privacy and data protection. In this contribution, the authors explore the differences and interplays between the rights to privacy and data protection. They describe the two rights and come to the conclusion that they differ both formally and substantially, though overlaps are not to be excluded.

Given these different yet not mutually exclusive scopes they then apply the rights to three case-studies body-scanners, human enhancement technologies, genome sequencing , highlighting in each case potential legal differences concerning the scope of the rights, the role of consent, and the meaning of the proportionality test.

Finally, and on the basis of these cases, the authors propose paths for articulating the two rights using the qualitative and quantitative thresholds of the two rights, which leads them to rethink the relationship between privacy and data protection, and ultimately, the status of data protection as a fundamental right. Privacy; Data Protection; proportionality.

The existence of a fundamental right to the protection of personal data in European Union EU law is nowadays undisputed. Established in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights in , it is increasingly permeating EU secondary law, and is expected to play a key role in the future EU personal data protection landscape. The right's reinforced visibility has rendered manifest the co-existence of two possible and contrasting interpretations as to what it come to mean.

If some envision it as a primarily permissive right, enabling the processing of such data under certain conditions, others picture it as having a prohibitive nature, implying that any processing of data is a limitation of the right, be it legitimate or illegitimate.

This paper investigates existing tensions between different understandings of the right to the protection of personal data, and explores the assumptions and conceptual legacies underlying both approaches. It traces their historical lineages, and, focusing on the right to personal data protection as established by the EU Charter, analyses the different arguments that can ground contrasted readings of its Article 8. It also reviews the conceptualisations of personal data protection as present in the literature, and finally contrasts all these perspectives with the construal of the right by the EU Court of Justice.

Towards a European framework for integrated decision making. Discussion paper on legal approaches to security, privacy and personal data protection. Security and privacy are typically regarded as polymorphic notions. They have a mult iplicity of meanings, not only across different fields and academic disciplines, but also from a legal perspective and even specifically as components of European Union EU law.

In EU law, they now intersect with an additional perhaps less contested, but possibly not less elusive legal notion: This paper considers legal conceptualisations of security, privacy and personal data protection and their interconnections in the EU. Gutwirth Serge Le contexte du droit ce sont ses sources formelles et les faits et moyens qui exigent son intervention. Revue Interdisciplinaire d'Etudes Juridiques 70 Law as a practice; Latour. Gutwirth Serge Taaltest voor professoren: De Juristenkrant Article 9 Sep , pp.

Als alles erop wijst dat de taaltest indruist tegen drie decennia lang gevoerde universitaire politiek van internatio-nalisering; als ze de rechten en de inzet miskent van degenen die al jaren in andere talen lesgeven; als het hoogst twijfelachtig is of zo'n test überhaupt iets zegt over de capaciteit van een docent om goed les te geven in een taal; als de maatregel discriminerend lijkt ten opzichte van het niet bestaan ervan voor het lesgeven in het Nederlands; en als de voorgestelde regeling keihard is en zelfs geen tweede kans voorziet; hoe moeten we die keuze van de Vlaamse gemeenschap om de taaltest in te voeren dan begrijpen?

The authors claim that restorative justice is mainly an ideological movement that lacks convincing empirical, anthropological or legal grounds. Instead of trying to make criminal law more restorative, or even trying to replace penal law by an alternative system of restorative law, restorative thinkers had better turn to the opportunities that the civil law offers for 'horizontal' conflict resolution.

Their critique of restorativist ideology does not imply that the authors want to defend criminal justice as it is administered today in Western Europe, to the contrary. On the one hand the scope of criminal law could and should be drastically reduced by strategies of depenalisation and transfers of matters to the sphere of civil law.

On the other hand much can be learned from the creative and constructive way in which restorative writers have been approaching sanctions, which they mistakenly do not call punishments. The use of criminal punishment will have to be reduced to the last resort they should be, and prison should be avoided as much as possible. Nothing stands in the way of developing options in the criminal procedural law to allow for constructive sanctions that satisfy victims, offenders and the public prosecutor as the representative of the criminal law.

Also in the civil law domain much more could be done to make possible adequate repair. But punishment is not repair and punishment has its legitimate functions that should be recognized. Gutwirth Serge, Friedewald Michael Emergent technologies and the transformations of privacy and data protection Guest Editorial. Towards a common framework for privacy and ethical assessment, was a three-year research project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme, part of the Science in Society activities of the EC's DG Research and Innovation.

Started in the project has ended in March PRESCIENT's aim was to provide insights that may contribute to an early identification of privacy related issues arising from emerging technologies, taking seriously both the need to distinguish between privacy and data protection, and the contrasts between the legal, socioeconomic and ethical conceptualizations of each, which do not necessarily match neither have the same kind of consequences.

In other words, the project wanted to elaborate the means for an early anticipation of dangers and risks related to emerging technologies along the lines of a imaginary matrix with two rows distinguishing between privacy and data protection issues, and four columns representing distinct approaches: Among other things the project has elaborated an extended sociological privacy typology that takes into account current and future challenges posed by emergent technologies such as soft biometrics, full DNA sequencing, unmanned aircraft systems or human enhancement technologies Kukk and Hüsing, , Finn and Wright, , Finn et al.

The legal research aimed at outlining the manner in which EU law has constructed the rights to privacy and to personal data protection. Indeed, from a legal viewpoint the two rights have a different content and architecture, and they are underpinned by another rationale data protection therefore being both more and less than "informational privacy", as is often posited.

Building upon this, it has then tried to determine how to best articulate the two rights in the face of future and emergent technologies for a more in depth account see, Gellert and Gutwirth, The ethical approach to privacy and data protection, concerned with morality in social sciences and humanities terms, has then investigated the ethical caveats surrounding privacy and data protection.

Finally the PRESCIENT team has suggested a framework for an integrated approach towards privacy and ethical impact assessment which is a timely topic in the light of the current reform of the European data protection framework and technology governance approaches summarised under the umbrella term "responsible research and innovation" Owen et al.

This well attended International Conference on Privacy and Emerging Technologies brought together a impressive list of speakers and interventions, representing different perspectives and scientific disciplines, as well as representatives of different concerns and views on the issues.

In the wake of the conference, the authors have resubmitted their papers, which then were all reviewed by at least two competent and interested peers. This has lead when possible to a further sharpening and improvement of the quality of the contributions. Therefore editors do want to expressly thank the reviewers for their commitment and the high quality of their input: The harvest is impressive. Speaking at a high level, all the articles follow the same movement: In the first article, Mathias Leese, who is a researcher at Security Ethics section of the International Centre for Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities of the University of Tübingen, shows how commercial trusted traveller programs are turned into a crucial element of security policies in aviation, ands more particularly of data based passengers risk assessment.

Passengers are more or less voluntarily enrolled in such programmes that provide some immediate advantages, but on the flipside they increase a more intrusive collection of personal data for a more extensive and performing profiling.

The author inquires how such evolution impinges upon the citizen-state and consumer-market relations in terms of privacy and data protection thus become increasingly blurred. In her contribution Zuzanna Warso, who is responsible for reviewing the impact of EU legislation on human rights at the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, an NGO in Warsaw, holds the proposed "right to be forgotten" against the light of both the fast evolving online environment and the tough objective to guarantee human rights on the web.

For the author the main issue at stake is the absence or underdetermination of a concept of privacy in the online world. She links this to the width of the application of the household exception in data protection and to the challenge to devise online "territories".

With Ugo Pagallo, who is a professor of jurisprudence the Law School of the University of Torino, we move to the meeting point of the internet of things and robotics: Indeed, such "autonomic" information streams affect data protection and strongly call for a protection through "privacy by design" which appears particularly suited here. But the author also warns that privacy by design may fall short in coping with issues that depend on the cultural context and the type of application with which we are dealing: Ultimately, such "robots in the cloud" applications might well fundamentally question the current principles of data protection and particularly, the informed consent as legitimation of the processing.

This argument is built upon a relational conception of technology and its essential non-neutrality. Illustrations are drawn from the EU Cookie Directive of and the foreseen obligation of "data protection by design" in the proposed General Data Protection Regulation. To further analyse these differences and similarities they take body-scanners, human enhancement technologies and genome sequencing as case studies, which leads them to rethink the relationship between privacy and data protection, and ultimately, the status and content of data protection as a fundamental right.

The authors show that the fundamental right to data protection is subject to two co-existing and contrasting interpretations. The article digs deeper into the tensions between the different understandings of the right to the protection of personal data, and explores the assumptions, histories and conceptual legacies underlying both approaches.

While studying the immutability of fundamental values, the author offers a brief survey of the role of public opinion, as well as of the limitations of taking into account the majority opinion, followed by a thought experiment about the possible ways of regulating the "Code", approaching it from the direction of two fundamental rights, the right to human dignity and the freedom of academic research.

After reaching conflicting conclusions and making a few suggestions about possible ways to regulate the area, the author makes a proposal about the introduction of a small-scale experimental tool, metaphorically named as a predictive learning model of regulation. Despite the difficulties and the uncertainties, the essay's overall perspective on the role of legal regulation is not a pessimistic one, as long as it is used flexibly and in conjunction with other means of regulation.

In a time of transition in the field of privacy and data protection regulation we want to demonstrate that, far from the dystopian or fatalist discourses according to which, privacy would be dead in the information age, it is still a living and vibrant right that can - and needs to - be reinvented and re-enacted everyday, and this notwithstanding the strong and successful parallel development of data protection.

Data protection does not at all take over the role and importance of privacy: Privacy is there to stay. Future and emerging technologies can participate to the activation of the realisation of this endeavour.

Yet, how exactly to successfully work in that direction is a matter of future collective experiments. The different contributions of this special issue have laid some groundwork, but we are still at the beginning and much is still to be done in devising the kind of information society we want to live in.

We wish you pleasant readings, which we hope will foster inspiration for further discussion and reflection.

Surveillance, ethics and privacy in civil applications. Seven types of privacy. The legal construction of privacy and data protection. Privacy, data protection and policy implications in whole genome sequencing. Bio-engineering in the 21st Century. European Governance Challenges in Bio-Engineering. Responsible research and innovation: From science in society to science for society, with society. Science and Public Policy, 39, Integrating privacy and ethical impact assessment.

Science and Public Policy, 40, Forthcoming. Held on 25, 26 and 27 January under the title European Data Protection: Coming of Age the conference welcomed participants at the venue, while another people were reached through free public events organized in the evenings. The 3 day conference offered participants 25 panels and several workshops and special sessions, with speakers from academia, the public and private sectors, and civil society.

All chapters were peer reviewed by at least two specialists under responsibility of the editors. Lessons from the Havasupai Tribe vs.

Arizona Board of Regents. Law, Innovation and Technology 5: The Native American Havasupai tribe objected to research that had been done on their blood samples and to results that were stigmatising and disruptive to their selfunderstanding.

We show that the Havasupai case holds particularly valuable lessons regarding appropriate consent requirements, the level of protection offered by anonymisation procedures, and the scope of participants' right to withdraw consent.

Next we consider the Code of Federal Regulations and identify major flaws which are exposed by the Havasupai case. In the final part of the paper we seek to show that biobank research participants seeking redress under present tort doctrine will be left without a remedy, because courts have not recognised a duty of special care outside the therapeutic setting and have not considered dignitary harms to be compensable injuries.

We suggest two ways in which current tort doctrine may be modified to better protect the dignity of biobank research participants, one involving an expansion of existing remedies and the other concerning the development of a distinct dignitary tort. Havasupai; Dignitary interest; biobanks. Technological Forecasting and Social Change This paper posits that ethical dilemma scenarios are a useful instrument to provoke policy makers and other stakeholders, to including industry, in considering the privacy, ethical, social and other implications of new and emerging technologies.

It describes a methodology for constructing and deconstructing such scenarios and provides four such scenarios in an orthogonal relationship with each other. The paper describes some different, but closely related scenario construction-deconstruction methodologies, which formed the basis for the methodology adopted in the European Commission-funded PRESCIENT project. The paper makes the point that in ethical dilemma scenarios, it is not immediately apparent what choices policy makers should select.

Hence, there is a need for undertaking a privacy and ethical impact assessment and engaging stakeholders in the process to identify and discuss the issues raised in the scenarios.

Ethical dilemma scenarios; Privacy impact assessment; Ethical impact assessment; Near field communications; Biometric technologies. The Commission's proposed Regulation and Directive intended to replace it improve the data protection afforded to individuals in their respective fields of application across the EU today.

Liber Amicorum Koen Raes - Key words: Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 2 2: Reflections on copyright enforcement online and its conflicts with fundamental rights such as privacy. Panopticon 1 33 1: This contribution focuses on the rise and fall of the "Commission Adriaenssens". This commission was installed by the Belgian Catholic Church in order to react on the problems of sexual abuse of children "in pastoral relations", but stopped functioning once a Belgian judge decided to confiscate all of its files.

On the contrary, by claiming "complementarity" and comparing itself with the infamous South-African TRC's, the Commission created an ambiguous and unclear situation for victims, public opinion and justice. Sonja Snacken, Els Dumortier eds. Resisting punitiveness in Europe?. In this contribution, we take a look at the impact of human rights on substantive criminal law, i. We consider this analysis important in the light of the rise of the 'penal state' in Europe.

Discrimination and privacy in the information society. Data mining and profiling in large databases. The make a comparison between European anti-discrimination law and data protection law. Both the differences and the overlap are discussed. They show that both rights have the same structure and increasingly turn to the same mode of operation in the information society, even though their content is far from identical.

They show that this is because both rights are grounded in the notion of negative freedom as evidenced by I. Berlin, and thus aim at safeguarding the autonomy of the citizen in the information society. Finally, they analyze two cases where both rights apply, and draw conclusions on how to best articulate the two tools.

Departing from the ECJ's Huber case where Germany was condemned for discriminatory processing of personal data and which suggests that there is a strong kin between data protection and discrimination issues, this chapter is an attempt to further compare the two fundamental rights i. Beyond their place in the EU legal order, their respective object or scope, this chapter will contend that these two human rights increasingly turn to the same mode of operation, including, inter alia, reliance upon administrative structures and procedures, or the endowment of citizens with a bundle of individual rights.

We will argue that this similarity can be understood in the light of their nature as regulatory human rights, that is, embodying the logic of negative freedom cf. The final section will examine situations of overlap between the rights, building upon the Huber and Test-Achats cases.

This will lead to final conclusions on how to best articulate these rights. Gellert Raphael, Gutwirth Serge Beyond accountability, the return to privacy? Managing Privacy through Accountability. Faced to the inability of existing legislations to efficiently protect individuals against new practices such as profiling or data mining, a focus upon and a reinforcement of the accountability principle have been proposed. This paper however, aims at going beyond the accountability principle by questioning the rationale of the existing legal framework.

Too often the legal protection of privacy is solely envisaged from the perspective of data protection. This is symptomatic of the assumption that data protection is a full translation of "informational privacy".

However, this overlooks the fact that privacy and data protection obey to two fundamentally different logics, respectively a prohibitionary or "opacity" logic, and a regulatory or "transparency" logic.

Therefore, equating privacy and data protection is not without dangers, since this position fails to deal with infringements upon privacy that are not linked to the processing of personal data. This paper therefore contends that the principle of accountability will always fall short of effectively protecting the privacy of individuals if it remains limited to improving the implementation of data protection legislation.

Gutwirth Serge Privacy en technologie. Koen Raes - Ethicus 14 Themanummer: Koen Raes - Ethicus: Gutwirth Serge The higher you fly, is the deeper you go. Ontmoetingen met Koen Raes. De Morgen Article 2 Jun Full text Sinds enkele jaren heeft het concept menselijke waardigheid een angstaanjagend succes gehad als ultieme dooddoener in debatten.

Als we die redenering doordenken, wordt het helemaal absurd. Als iemand een pruik, een schtreimel, een nonnekap, een sikhtulband of zelfs een cap of helm draagt, en ik niet, dan schenden ze mijn menselijke waardigheid En wat met de zonnebrillen? Als ik mijn ogen laat zien, moet jij mijn menselijke waardigheid eerbiedigen en je bril afzetten? En moet er een wet komen die verbiedt een zonnebril te dragen als niet iedereen dat tegelijk doet?

Vanuit juridisch oogpunt is "menselijke waardigheid" het resultaat van de mensenrechtelijke rechtspraak, eerder dan een transcendente morele waarde out there. Het moreel verontwaardigde Antwerpse Hof van Beroep vond dat de SM-sessies de menselijke waardigheid van het "slachtoffer" schonden en dat daardoor een straf moest opgelegd worden. In het eerste geval wordt een bepaalde vorm van seksualiteitsbeleving strijdig verklaard met de menselijke waardigheid, en dat wil zeggen, met die waarden waarvan de rechters denken dat ze aan de samenleving moeten opgelegd worden; in het tweede wordt een persoon veroordeeld, omdat de rechters vaststellen dat hij zich niet aan de afspraken heeft gehouden en dus de wilsvrijheid van het "slachtoffer" heeft verloochend.

Het eerste arrest juridisch problematisch want moralistisch en paternalistisch; het tweede is dat niet. Dat snijdt aan twee kanten, want wie kan er nu tegen respect van waardigheid zijn? Twee maten, twee gewichten. Ook wij zijn vrijzinnigen en humanisten, er daarom juist weten we dat het de uitdaging is, niet om een ideologie aan anderen op te leggen, maar om met de ander, hoe moeilijk dat ook is, te bouwen aan een samenleving waarin vrij samenleven mogelijk is.

Dat betekent dat we de vrouwen die in boerka willen rondlopen en dus daarvoor zelf kiezen, misschien uit geloofsovertuiging, of misschien ook, om niet de hele tijd aangekeken te worden door boerende mannen met bierblik en sigaret in de hand, of, om de uitsluitende en racistische omgeving die ze al heel hun leven ondergaan een middelvinger te presenteren in hun keuze moeten respecteren zelfs al vinden wij die de verkeerde.

U weet wel, Voltaire. Als humanisten en vrijzinnigen moeten wij ons integendeel richten niet alleen tegen degenen, fundamentalisten of niet, die ze tegen hun wil in die boerka dwingen en daarvoor steeds meer mogelijkheid krijgen in verwaarloosde en gehomogeniseerde migrantenbuurten, maar ook tegen de racisten die hen discrimineren en uitsluiten, tegen de islamofoben die hun geloofsvrijheid miskennen, tegen de macho's die vrouwen als een vleselijke prooi zien, Van al die hier juist opgesomde heerschappen zijn tenslotte er ontelbaar meer dan vrouwen die boerka's en nikabs dragen.

Dat betekent dat er, zoals in de rechtspraak, zaak per zaak, conflict per conflict, wordt gewikt en gewogen en rekening wordt gehouden met de verschillende rechten en vrijheden, belangen en overtuigingen, omstandigheden en gevolgen, die op het spel staan. Zwaaien met "menselijke waardigheid" en daaruit afgeleide algemene geboden en verboden, is niet anders dan zwaaien met de Bijbel, de Thora of de Koran. Freedom of religion; Burqa. Advanced technologies raise fundamental issues regarding key concepts of data protection.

Falling storage prices, increasing chips performance, the fact that technology is becoming increasingly embedded and ubiquitous, the convergence of technologies and other technological developments are broadening the scope and possibilities of applications rapidly. Society however, is also changing, affecting the privacy and data protection landscape. The 'demand' for free services, security, convenience, governance, etc, changes the mindsets of all the stakeholders involved.

Privacy is being proclaimed dead or at least worthy of dying by the captains of industry; governments and policy makers are having to manoeuvre between competing and incompatible aims; and citizens and customers are considered to be indifferent. In the year in which the plans for the revision of the Data Protection Directive will be revealed, the current volume brings together a number of chapters highlighting issues, describing and discussing practices, and offering conceptual analysis of core concepts within the domain of privacy and data protection.

The book's first part focuses on surveillance, profiling and prediction; the second on regulation, enforcement, and security; and the third on some of the fundamental concepts in the area of privacy and data protection. Reading the various chapters it appears that the 'patient' needs to be cured of quite some weak spots, illnesses and malformations. European data protection is at a turning point and the new challenges are not only accentuating the existing flaws and the anticipated difficulties, but also, more positively, the merits and the need for strong and accurate data protection practices and rules in Europe, and elsewhere.

Leenes, De Hert P. Springer Dordrecht , pp. The informational society is in a state of constant flux. After the adoption of the In- ternet as a prominent channel of information websites and communication e-mail, chat, IM, VOIP , we are now witnessing a transition whereby internet infrastruc- ture is also used for storing and processing data.

Cloud computing is replacing direct control of data on local devices with flexibility, scalability and accessibility from any- where. Cloud computing however also complicates the privacy and data protection landscape because crucial concepts such as the 'data controller' and consequently their responsibilities, liabilities, duties, and the 'purpose of the processing' which indicates what a processing is , are further blurred.

Openbaarheid van rechtspraak en het verwerken van persoonsgegevens: Vermeulen Mathias, Bellanova Rocco, Gutwirth Serge A fundamental rights analysis of smart surveillance technologies. In order to provide a clearer idea about the legal frameworks that are relevant for the use of smart surveillance technologies, this chapter first reviews existing laws and principles that are relevant to the use of surveillance technologies in general, focusing in particular on the right to privacy and data protection.

Then, these laws and principles are 'applied' or tested to a number of smart surveillance technologies in order to assess their potential intrusiveness into a range of fundamental rights, including due process and non-discrimination. Finally, as legislation in the field of data protection is currently undergoing critical changes, the chapter passes under review the most important developments from the perspective of the impact on, and development of, smart surveillance.

Based on this analysis, in its conclusions, the chapter advances some elements for further reflection, inter alia: De Morgen Article 10 Jun , pp. Aan de rector van de KULeuven, cc de rectoren van de andere Vlaamse universiteiten Beste rectoren, De acties rond het fameuze Wetterse aardappelveld en het ontslag van Barbara Van Dyck aan de KULeuven dat er op volgde, hebben ons aan het denken en debatteren gezet, niet enkel vanuit een gevoel van collegialiteit, maar ook vanuit ons wetenschappelijk vakgebied: De aardappelkwestie speelt zich ook in ons patattenveld af - dat van de vrije meningsuiting.

Door een onderzoekster te ontslaan omdat zij weigerde afstand te nemen van de actie, is er in dat veld voldoende schade aangericht om ons te verontrusten. Het gerecht moet zijn werk doen. Maar we willen het hier niet hebben over de strafrechtelijke of burgerrechtelijke afhandeling, wel over de reactie vanuit academische hoek: Ontslag om dwingende redenen is in het Vlaamse academische landschap uiterst zeldzaam. Zelfs wanneer academici zich schuldig maken aan ernstige feiten tegen personen zoals aanranding van een minderjarige een zoöloog aan de UGent of vrijwillige slagen en verwondingen met de dood van zijn vrouw tot gevolg een rector aan de VUB , worden zij niet op staande voet ontslagen.

Ook wanneer een academicus lijnrecht ingaat tegen de basiswaarden van de instelling -en tegen de Racismewet, door op een lijst van een racistische politieke partij te staan een jurist aan de KULeuven volgt geen ontslag.

Als er al een sanctie komt, wordt wegens het vermoeden van onschuld in de regel de uitkomst van de gerechtelijke procedure afgewacht vooraleer - indien toepasselijk- een tuchtmaatregel te treffen of tot ontslag over te gaan.

Het ontslag van Barbara Van Dyck is dus opvallend en uitzonderlijk. Wat heeft ze dan wel op haar kerfstok? Zij nam deel aan een actie waarbij vernielingen zijn aangericht, maar richtte zelf geen vernielingen aan.

Of deze vorm van deelname een strafbaar feit is, is onzeker en in elk geval niet aan de KULeuven maar aan de strafrechter om uit te maken. Waarom is ze dan ontslagen? Barbara Van Dyck is ontslagen vanwege een niet strafbare meningsuiting.

Zij verdedigde de actie en nam er ook drie dagen later geen afstand van. De KULeuven overheid argumenteert ook dat ze werd ontslagen omdat ze weigerde de actie af te keuren: Wij zijn van oordeel dat dit ontslag een schending uitmaakt van de vrijheid van meningsuiting van Barbara Van Dyck. Deze houdt ook het recht in om niet tot een bepaalde meningsuiting gedwongen te worden.

Maar onze ongerustheid strekt veel verder dan het lot van deze ene onderzoekster. In ons vakgebied noemt men dat virus het 'chilling effect': In omgevingen waar een vrije debatcultuur bij uitstek van belang is, zoals in de media, in de politiek of in de kunsten, maakt het 'chilling effect' dat uiterst spaarzaam moet worden omgesprongen met restricties op de vrije meningsuiting.

Voor ondergetekenden spreekt het vanzelf dat de academische wereld een dergelijke omgeving is. Wij vrezen dat de zeer snelle, zeer harde, en zeer gemediatiseerde reactie die dit ontslag was, het signaal uitzendt dat aan de KULeuven, of zelfs aan Vlaamse universiteiten in het algemeen, een loyauteitsverplichting geldt die maakt dat wetenschappers niet vrijelijk standpunten kunnen innemen of acties kunnen voeren wanneer universitaire belangen op het spel staan.

Wij vrezen dat dit de rol van universiteiten als broeikassen en proeftuinen van maatschappijkritiek zal aantasten, en dat dit niet enkel de universiteiten, maar ook de samenleving zal verarmen. Wij vragen daarom de intrekking van het ontslag van Barbara Van Dyck. Activism; Freedom of speech. Security, Migration and Integration. In this system the state is assumed to be both the object of security and the primary provider of security. Threats to the state's security are understood as threats to its political autonomy in the system.

The major international institutions that emerged after the Second World War were built around this idea. When the founders of the United Nations spoke of collective security, they were referring primarily to state security and to the coordinated system that would be necessary in order to avoid the 'scourge of war'. But today, a wide range of security threats, both new and traditional, confront Europe, or at least as some would say.

New forms of nationalism, ethnic conflict and civil war, information technology, biological and chemical warfare, resource conflicts, pandemics, mass migrations, transnational terrorism, and environmental dangers challenge, according to many, the limits of our ability to safeguard the values upon which European society is based.

This book will provided theory and empirical case detail on several primary issues: First, one form or another of insecurity motivates the movement of migrants motivating them to internal displacement or to sometimes risky trips to other countries. The correlation between the conditions of economic, health, food and military insecurity can be directly correlated with patterns of migration on a regional and global scale. Second, some people become insecure while they are on the move. This is particularly the case for irregular migrants.

Greater risks are being taken by people trying to move illegally from poorer to richer parts of the world, for example crossing the Mexico-United States border or the Mediterranean from North Africa to Southern Europe. A specific category of irregular migrants for whom this is often the case includes the victims of migrant smugglers and human traffickers.

Another category of concern in this context includes those who become stranded in transit countries. Third, certain migrants are also insecure in their destination countries. This is particularly the case of irregular migrants who work illegally and are often subject to exploitation. Often their jobs are dirty, dangerous and difficult, jobs that nationals are unwilling to take.

The victims of human trafficking - andimportant migrant group - are not free to decide on the activities in which they engage. They are often forced into low-paid, insecure and degrading work from which they may find it impossible to escape and for which they receive trivial or no compensation. Finally, and more generally, many migrants, including those living and working in a regular manner, experience marginalization or discrimination. De fixatie op leedtoevoegende straffen in het strafrecht.

Deruyck Filiep, Rozie Michel eds. Liber Amicorum Alain De Nauw. Volgens velen kenmerkt het strafrecht zich door het feit dat het leidt tot het opleggen van een straf. Vanuit dit oogpunt wordt het strafrecht te snel en te gemakkelijk gereduceerd tot straffen, en dus tot wat het Hof van Cassatie omschrijft als 'leedtoevoeging'. Ons inziens is dit echter niet de kern van de zaak. Hoewel we een strafbegrip hanteren waarin de leedreferentie behouden blijft en hoewel we wijzen op de alomtegenwoordigheid van leed bij elk contact met het strafsysteem, geloven we dat er twee redenen zijn om het leedprincipe gedeeltelijk te verlaten.

Enerzijds verdoezelt de omschrijving van het strafrecht als een systeem van leedtoevoeging het bestaan van leed veroorzaakt en toegevoegd buiten het strafrecht. Anderzijds verdoezelt deze omschrijving de eerste rang rol van de schuldigverklaring als kenmerkend gebaar van het strafrecht.

Straffen is niet hetzelfde als strafrecht en strafrecht is meer dan alleen van straffen. We durven zelfs een stap verder gaan door te stellen dat de strafkeuze en uitvoeringsfase geen kernonderdeel van het strafrecht is. Het bepalen van straffen in de strafwetgeving noemen we met Latour een politieke daad, geen juridische daad. Het is een daad waarin een juridische component aanwezig is, doch waar de politieke component veel zwaarder weegt.

De strafrechter hebben we in de eerste plaats nodig, zo leert de geschiedenis, om vast te stellen of een strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid voor ligt.

Computers, privacy and data protection: On 15 March , the Data Retention Directive, demanding the retention of telecommunications data for a period of six months up to two years, was adopted.